The recognition of notarial documents overseas

Expats with financial or family interests in their home countries often have to go to local notaries to sign powers of attorney and other formal documents to handle legal matters in their home countries. Differences between the legal systems mean that these types of formalities generate more complications than we’d imagine possible.

The main problem arises when the law requires that a particular document be executed as a “public” notarial instrument for it to be valid. In Spain, for instance, legal transactions such as granting powers of attorney and transferring real estate are only valid if they are executed via a notarially-recorded “public document”. But there are countries, e.g., most common-law jurisdictions, where this type of “public document” does not exist.

What makes a document “public” in countries where this type of instrument does exist depends on the law in each country. In Spain, notarial documents are public documents, which guarantees that the facts stated in these documents are true in accordance with what the notary public has personally verified, and that, from a legal point of view, the statements of intent made in these instruments are authentic. Basically, all these characteristics give such documents privileged probative force.

We can only be sure that a notarial instrument will be recognised as such and, therefore, as a public document in the country where it is to be used, if the notary public who authorises it confirms in the document itself that all the legal requirements have been met, both in the jurisdiction it was executed and where it is to be used. In these cases, as a complement and guarantee to the service provided by the local notary, it is advisable to seek the advice of a lawyer who knows both legal systems.

Carlos Prieto Cid – Lawyer

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